Pakistan Journal of Geology (PJG)

PROVENANCE STUDIES OF MIOCENE-PLIOCENE NAGRI FORMATION EXPOSED AT KANATI AREA, DISTRICT KHUSHAB, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

pjg.02.2018.27.30

ABSTRACT

PROVENANCE STUDIES OF MIOCENE-PLIOCENE NAGRI FORMATION EXPOSED AT KANATI AREA, DISTRICT KHUSHAB, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Geology (PJG)
Author: Sohaib Zia, Hamad-Ur-Rahim, M.Husnain Fida, Tofeeq Ahmad, Waqar Ahmad, Sajjad Khan

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/pjg.02.2018.27.30

The Siwalik sediments are widely distributed in foreland areas of Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bhutan. In Pakistan they are composed of four formations (Chinji Formation, Nagri Formation, Dhok Pathan Formation, Soan Formation) These post tectonic deposits contain vast phylogenetic trends of modern vertebrate species especially dating back to Miocene-Pliocene. Our study encompasses the Miocene-Pliocene Nagri Formation exposed at Kanati Section, District Khushab. The purpose of the study is to establish depositional modal based of Lithofacies and Petrographical studies. The Nagri Formation in the Kanati Section is 47 m thick and predominantly contains sandstone, silt and clay with sub-ordinate conglomerates. Four Lithofacies were established. These are Conglomerate Facies (N1) interpreted as channel floor deposits, Sandstone Facies with cross beds and extraclasts (N2), where extraclasts were deposited by the lateral movement of channel, Siltstone and Claystone/Mudstone Facies (N3) which were interpreted as crevasse splay deposits, and Clay Facies (N4) interpreted as flood channel deposits. The clay exposed here was mostly brick red in color showing oxidizing conditions due to subaerial exposure. Spheroidal weathering was quite common in sandstone. Petrographic analysis for sandstone thin sections revealed mostly moderate amount of quartz (59.53%), lithic fragments (39.9%) with minimal amount of feldspar (0.55%). The petrographic results for Nagri sandstone were plotted on a QFL diagram from where it was interpreted as belonging to Lithic Arenites. The provenance of this sandstone was established to be of Recycled Orogen based on the studies.
Pages 27-30
Year 2018
Issue 2
Volume 2

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pjg.02.2018.22.26

ABSTRACT

ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF DEBRIS FLOW MATERIAL AT BUNDU TUHAN, RANAU, SABAH, MALAYSIA

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Geology (PJG)
Author: Edgar Jr. Joe, Felix Tongkul, Rodeano Roslee

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/pjg.02.2018.22.26

Recurring events of debris flow especially during heavy rainfall have caused cut-off at one of the main road in Bundu Tuhan, Ranau namely Jalan Tamparuli-Ranau KM 83.90. In several incidents, the road was closed to public for hours due to deposition of thick sediment on the road, causing interruption to their daily activities. However, study on the properties of the debris flow material and their relationship with debris flow characteristics is quite limited. Thus, the objective of this study is to comprehend the debris flow trait based on the material property. The study of the material property pertains to the grain size distribution, Atterberg limit, and lastly the moisture content. They are interpreted based on the results in site investigation report where the soil samples were taken from nine numbers of trial pits which were excavated around the runout and deposition zones. This study found that the granular type debris flow displays high kinetic energy, shorter transportation distance towards deposition, large velocity, and more sediment flow towards deposition. Meanwhile, the low plasticity index of the soil causes a high occurrence of liquefaction process. Higher moisture content has also assisted in the mobilization of material.
Pages 22-26
Year 2018
Issue 2
Volume 2

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pjg.02.2018.18.21

ABSTRACT

DETERMINATION OF GROUNDWATER AND OVERLAND FLOW DIRECTION IN NDELE, RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Geology (PJG)
Author: Kekwaru, M.M, Nwankwoala, H.O

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/pjg.02.2018.18.21

This study was carried out to determine the direction of flow of groundwater and overland flow at Ndele, Emuoha local Government area of Rivers state, Nigeria. The Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to determine the longitude, latitude and the elevation above mean sea level at ten (10) locations spread across the study area. Water level meter was also used to measure the depths to water table which was used to calculate the hydraulic head in each of the ten (10) hand dug wells analyzed. Surface elevation and hydraulic head contour maps were then generated using surfer 8 computer software. The surface elevation and hydraulic head contour maps developed revealed that the overland flow and groundwater flow are towards the same direction; South to South-Western parts of the region. This makes the watershed area more vulnerable compared to other locations in the study area. More efforts should be made towards establishing eco-friendly practices in the North, North-Western and North-Eastern parts of the community to minimize groundwater contamination. It is recommended that boreholes be sited in the North, North-Western and North-Eastern parts of the community to avoid contamination of potable water sources. Moreso, an appropriate geophysical survey must be carried out before any borehole is drilled in the area.
Pages 18-21
Year 2018
Issue 2
Volume 2

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pjg.02.2018.11.17

ABSTRACT

WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION OF PAHARRANG DRAIN IN FAISALABAD AND EVALUATION OF SUBSURFACE CONTAMINATION USING GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Geology (PJG)
Author: Dr. Haroon Rashid, Engr. Atif Bilal Asad, Dr. Abdul Nasir, Dr. Arslan Chaudhary, Dr. Asma Sattar

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/pjg.02.2018.11.17

Due to improper management of municipal wastewater in urban areas, most of the drains passing through major cities have converted to industrial effluent carrying drains with immensely excessive contamination loads. Same is the case with the Paharrang drain in Faisalabad, which was once storm water carrying drain but presently it is highly polluted by industrial wastes. This research work was conducted in order to determine the level of contamination in this drain and to find out its impact on soil and groundwater. Due to unlined drain, the untreated industrial wastewater is percolating down into the soil and finally mixing with groundwater. In this regard the research area was thoroughly investigated to find the concentration of major contaminants in wastewater, groundwater and soil. Sampling points of groundwater were selected keeping in view the relative position from the drain. Soil samples were collected to understand the mobility of contaminants. The groundwater samples were analyzed for different parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, TSS, BOD, COD, Pb, Cd, Cu, and Cr. The results of this analyzed parameter were compared with WHO guidelines. The results of these analyzed parameters were represented by mapping using ArcView GIS v9.3 and IDW was used for raster interpolation. Statistical approach was adopted for analysis of these concentrations and GIS. In soil samples excessive heavy metals content was found and 80 percent soil samples had pH within permissible limit.
Pages 11-17
Year 2018
Issue 2
Volume 2

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pjg.02.2018.01.10

ABSTRACT

ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL MAPPING ON SLOPE DESIGN IN THE MOUNTAINOUS AREA OF SABAH WESTERN, MALAYSIA

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Geology (PJG)
Author: Rodeano Roslee, Felix Tongkul

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/pjg.02.2018.01.10

The geology in the mountainous area of Sabah western provides a favourable setting for engineering geological instability. The area is underlain by the Trusmadi Formation (Palaeocene to Eocene age), the Crocker Formation (Late Eocene to Early Miocene age) and vary recent Quaternary alluvial materials which are still being deposited. The argillaceous nature and intense deformation suffered by the Trusmadi Formation and the highly jointed sandstone and mudstone beds of the arenaceous Crocker Formation makes them highly susceptible to weathering and instability. The weathered materials are unstable and may experience sliding due to by high pore pressure and intensively of geomorphological processes. In this study, a total of 20 selected critical slope failures were studied and classified into two main groups; rock slope (ten) and soil slope (ten). Soil slope failures normally involved large volumes of failed material as compared much rock slopes, where the failures are mostly small to medium. Kinematics rock slope analyses indicates that the variable potential of circular, planar, wedges, and toppling failures modes as well as the combination of more than one mode of aforementioned failure. Rock and soil slopes stability analysis indicates that the factor of safety value as unsafe (0.56 to 0.95). The geological influence had transformed the slopes in the Sabah mountainous area to be highly unstable and susceptible to landslide occurrences. Six (6) related main parameters to the landslide occurrence in the study area were attributed; 1) local and regional geology, 2) hydrological and geohydrological, 3) mineralogical and micro structures, 4) local discontinuities structures, 5) physical and engineering properties of soil and rock, and 6) geomorphological processes which can help in evaluating landslide problems. Therefore, development planning has to consider the slope hazard and risk management. This engineering geological mapping may play a vital role in disaster risk reduction programme in Sabah to ensure the public safety and to be extend with different environment.
Pages 01-10
Year 2018
Issue 2
Volume 2

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pjg.01.2018.21.29

ABSTRACT

BENTHIC FORAMINIFERAL BIOSTRATIGRAPHY, MICROFACIES ANALYSIS AND DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF CHORGALI FORMATION YAADGAR SECTION, MUZAFFARABAD, PAKISTAN

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Geology (PJG)
Author: Muhammad Shahid Khawaj , Muhammad Faisal , Qasim Ur Rehman , Tofeeq Ahmad , Salman Ahmad Khattak , Ahsaan Saeed , Muhammad Toseef Adnan , Irfan , Saif Ur Rehman , Iqtidar Ahmed , Muhammad Ishfaque

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/pjg.01.2018.21.29

Present study deals with microfacies analysis, interpretation of depositional environment and foraminiferal biostratigraphy of Early Eocene Chorgali Formation in Yadgar section, Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Study area lies on apex of western limb of the Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis, which is the part of North-West Himalayan Fold and Thrust Belt. The stratigraphic succession of the area is consisted of sedimentary sequences, ranging in age from Precambrian to Miocene excluding Ordovician to Cretaceous and Oligocene successions, those are marked by unconformity. Early Eocene Chorgali formation in this area is consisted of dark to reddish grey limestone, light grey dolomite, greenish grey shale intercalations, marl and argillaceous limestone. Nodulations is also present in few limestone beds. Formation was measured and described in the field. Thickness in this area is 52 meters. Detailed petrographic analysis of 15 thin sections was carried out. On the basis of fauna and lithology, four microfacies are identified, they are as followed:

1. Dolomitic Grainstone Microfacies,

2. Benthic Foraminiferal Packstone Microfacies,

3. Mixed Bioclastic Wackstone Microfacies,

4. Planktonic Mud-Wackstone Microfacies.

Allochemical constituents present in the formation include pelloids, intraclasts, extraclasts and bioclasts (Gastropods, Bivalves, Ostracods and brachiopods). Orthochemical material is mostly micrite. Spar is also present but in less amount. Foraminifera are the major fossil contents present in the Chorgali Formation and have good age diagnostic fossils. Faunal assemblages include following Genera: Assilina, Nummulites, Lockhartia, Miscellanea, Discocyclina, Operculina, Brachiopoda and Mollusks. Early Eocene age is assigned to Chorgali formation on the basis of these Larger Benthic Foraminifera i.e. Assilina, Nummulites and Lockhartia. Planktonic foraminifera are also present including Milliolids, Nodosaria and Echinoderms. But these are not studied in detail as they are not index fossil. Depositional environment is interpreted on the basis of microfacies and foraminiferal assemblages. Most part of the formation is deposited in inner shelf, while some part is deposited in middle to outer shelf. Lagoonal to tidal flat deposition is also found. Overall the formation represents the deposition in inner shelf, more specifically middle shelf to inner shelf environment.

Pages 21-29
Year 2018
Issue 1
Volume 2

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pjg.01.2018.18-20

ABSTRACT

IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS ON GROUND WATER QUALITY- A CASE STUDY OF GUJRANWALA, PAKISTAN

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Geology (PJG)
Author: Muhammad Usman , Mian Bilal Khalid, Hafsa Yasin, Abdul Nasir, Ch Arslan

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/pjg.01.2018.18-20

Industrial effluents are polluting our natural resources, surface as well as ground water. No doubt industrial development is the need of the hours, but they are destroying the quality of life. By directly discharging wastewater in the drain poses a substantial impact on all factors of environment. The current study was conducted to investigate the groundwater condition and quality of nearby areas of different industries (textile and tannery) due to untreated disposal of waste water. Sampling points were selected within the range of 4km from particular industry. Important parameters for ground water quality were investigated. It included pH, hardness, Chlorides, Nitrates and TDS. Results have shown deviations from their respective permissible limits that is a big indicator of groundwater destruction due to disposal of industrial waste water that is composed of several dangerous pollutants. It is the need of the hour to work on the wastewater treatment programs so that waste water will be processed to remove pollutants and can be used again. This is 2 in 1 strategy. Treated water will be free of pollutants and can be used again. Fresh water demand will be lessened.
Pages 18-20
Year 2018
Issue 1
Volume 2

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pjg.01.2018.12.17

ABSTRACT

GEOLOGICAL AND HYDROGEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A HYDROCARBON IMPACTED SITE IN THE NIGER DELTA

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Geology (PJG)
Author: Nwankwoala, H.O., Oborie, E

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/pjg.01.2018.12.17

This study was conducted in K-Dere, Rivers State, Nigeria to determine the impact of oil spill contamination on soil and groundwater resources in the area. A total of twelve (12) wells were drilled at random to a depth of 10 m using an auger. The method of soil and groundwater analysis involved visual examination and laboratory analysis. Characterization of soils in the area revealed a predominance of fine and medium grained sand underlain by alternating layers of fine, silt and clayey formations. Soil samples from BH-04, BH-05, BH-06, BH-07, BH-07 and BH-11 have a weak to strong hydrocarbon smell and shows light to heavy sheen. Groundwater in all drilled holes was turbid and encountered at depths from 4.27 to 6.37m. BH-06 has a very strong smell and heavy sheen. Free phase hydrocarbon was also found in BH-06. The chemical concentration of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH), Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylene) were determined from the groundwater samples. TPH ranged from <10µg/l to 222,000µg/l. BH-04, BH-06, BH-07 and BH-11 had TPH concentration above DPR intervention value of 600µg/l for water. Napthalene ranged from <0.3µg/L to 537µg/L. BH-04 and BH-06 had Napthalene concentration above the DPR intervention value of 70µg/L. Anthracene ranged from <0.045µg/L to 40.9µg/L. Only BH-06 exceeded DPR intervention value of 5µg/L. Phenanthrene ranged from <0.066µg/L to 135µg/L. Again, BH-06 exceeded the DPR intervention value of 5µg/L. Fluoranthracene ranged from <0.051µg/L to 14.4µg/L. Only BH-06 exceeded the DPR intervention value of 1µg/L. Benzo (a) anthrancene concentration in the groundwater samples ranged from <0.051µg/L to 3.52µg/L. Again, BH-06 exceeded the DPR intervention value of 1µg/L. Apart from benzene with a concentration of 2.5µg/L and Ethylbenzene with a concentration of 1.11µg/L in BH-06, all other BTEX compounds in groundwater in the area had concentrations <1µg/L and were within DPR intervention values. This result shows that the soils and groundwater in the area are heavily impacted by oil contamination. Groundwater is shallow (up to 0m bgl) and the direction of flow is towards the north-westerly and south-easterly directions. BH-06 which has a high hydraulic head also shows the highest level of soil and groundwater contamination in the area. It is therefore recommended that remediation be carried out in the area to prevent further damage to the soil and groundwater resources in the surrounding areas.
Pages 12-17
Year 2018
Issue 1
Volume 2

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pjg.01.2018.06.11

ABSTRACT

HYDROGEOCHEMICAL SIGNATURES AND QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER IN OKPOKO
AND ENVIRONS, SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Geology (PJG)
Author: Nwankwoala, H. O, Ememu, A. J

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/pjg.01.2018.06.11

This study is aimed at assessing the hydro-geochemical signatures of groundwater in Okpoko and Environs in Anambra State, Southeastern Nigeria. Fifteen groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physico-chemical, heavy metals and hydrocarbon content. Heavy metals in groundwater were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. The groundwater analyses revealed that average pH (6.05), Fe (0.68 mg/L) and Ni (0.028 mg/L) values exceeded WHO and NSDWQ guidelines. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in groundwater were relatively very low and recorded only in BH1 (0.04 mg/L) and BH2 (0.002 mg/L) and below detectable limit for all other sampled boreholes. Piper diagram revealed two hydro-chemical facies: Mg-HCO3 and Ca-HCO3 rich water, while Stiff diagrams confirmed four distinct water types (Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3; Ca2+, HCO3; Ca2+, Na++K+, Cl-, HCO3; Ca2+, Cl- Class). Gibb’s diagrams revealed that chemical weathering of rock and precipitation are the major influences on the groundwater quality. The various ionic ratios: Mg/Ca (0.56), HCO3/Cl (3.31), (Na + K)/Cl (1.45), Na/K (1.61), Ca/Na (7.0), SO4/Cl (0.67) and CEV (-0.45) suggests the groundwater sources are of inland origin. Groundwater flow direction shows that the area is drained by the Niger River on the western part of the study area.
Pages 06-11
Year 2018
Issue 1
Volume 2

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pjg.01.2018.01.05

ABSTRACT

FORECASTING THE FUTURE PATTERN OF LAND USE AND LAND COVER CHANGE IN THE WETLAND ECOSYSTEM OF THE PORT-HARCOURT METROPOLIS

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Geology (PJG)
Author: Wali E , Phil-Eze P.O, Nwankwoala H.O.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/pjg.01.2018.01.05

Changes in wetland area have notable effects on ecosystem processes and services. Forecasts on Land use and Land cover change have become a focal point in managing natural resources and monitoring environmental changes in wetland ecosystem. The Port Harcourt metropolis has witnessed extremely large growth in population in recent times and a proper evaluation would reveal a change in land use and land cover of the study area. Therefore, the model and direction of this change is not properly revealed in the works of art. However, this study was organized to forecast the future pattern of land use/land cover change in the wetland ecosystem of Port-Harcourt metropolis. In furtherance of this study, satellite imageries between 1984-2013 using Remote Sensing techniques as an analytical tools and Geo-referencing properties of 1984, 1999, 2003 and 2013 made up of universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection, and datum WGS 84, zone 32 were acquired. The satellite images covering the area were acquired and analyzed using ArcGIS10.0, ERDAS IMAGE 2014 and IDRISI Selva. The Markov transition probability matrix where employed in the study to forecast the future pattern of land use and land cover change in the wetland ecosystem of Port-Harcourt for the given period of 30 years (2023, 2033 and 2043). The study concludes that there will be further loss of wetlands and their resources in the metropolis, if factors contributing to it are not properly checked.
Pages 01-05
Year 2018
Issue 1
Volume 2

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