Pakistan Journal of Geology (PJG)

SEDIMENTOLOGY AND PALYNOLOGY MODELS OF SEDIMENTARY SECTIONS ALONG LEMNA SECTION OF THE BENIN FORMATION, CROSS RIVER- SOUTHERN NIGERIA

pjg.01.2022.24.28

ABSTRACT

SEDIMENTOLOGY AND PALYNOLOGY MODELS OF SEDIMENTARY SECTIONS ALONG LEMNA SECTION OF THE BENIN FORMATION, CROSS RIVER- SOUTHERN NIGERIA

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Geology (PJG)
Author: Thomas A Harry , Ifiok U. Etim, Camillus E. Etim

This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/pjg.01.2022.24.28

The paleodepositional environment and age of sedimentary outcrops along Lemna Road, northeast of Calabar Town, Cross River State, were determined using sedimentological and palynological studies. The sediments are primarily made up of sand gravel, carbonaceous shale with plant roots, and clays. Sedimentological and Palynological analyses were performed with the goal of determining the textural properties, age, and depositional environment of the sediments. Graphic mean grain sizes, sorting, skewness, and kurtosis are the grain size factors. Sorting of coarse-grained sediments deposited in a river setting was low to extremely poor as a result of graphic mean estimated coarse-grained sediments. The overall skewness is well formed, with a platykurtic kurtosis. Scatter plots of the coefficient of flatness vs sphericity and sphericity versus the oblate-prolate index show that pebbles formed in a highly energetic system (beach). According to the results of pebble morphometric indices, the sandstones are in an extremely energetic (beach) environment. Bivariate plots of sand textural metrics including graphical skewness vs graphical standard deviation and second moment skewness versus second moment standard deviation confirmed the high intensity (beach) origin of the sandstones. In the palynological analysis it was observed that there was absence of foraminifera’s while index taxa such as Magnstriatites howardii, Zonocostites ramonae, Verrucatosporitea lienus and Psilatricolporites sp. Were identified inferring early to late Miocene in age of sediments exposed in the study area.

Pages 24-28
Year 2022
Issue 1
Volume 6
Posted by Natasha

pjg.01.2022.15.23

ABSTRACT

USE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY METHOD TO INFER SUBSURFACE LITHOLOGY USING DEPTH SLICING APPROACH: A CASE STUDY OF OREROKPE, DELTA STATE NIGERIA

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Geology (PJG)
Author: Star Otitie Umayah

This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/pjg.01.2022.15.23

The goal of this research is to use vertical electrical sounding to analyze the underlying lithological layers of Orerokpe, Delta State, Nigeria. The Schlumberger configuration with a maximum electrode spacing of 200 m was used in 15 VES surveys for the investigation. The data were acquired using ABEM SAS 4000 Terrameter and processed using the WINRESIST program. The data collected were analyzed and interpreted in both qualitative and quantitative terms. Distribution of the resistivity values at different depths are represented by iso-resistivity and electrical profile maps for different electrode spacing, AB at 2 m, 3 m, 4 m, 6 m, 6m (repeated), 9 m, 12m, 15m, 15m (repeated), 20m, 25m, 32m, 40m, 40m (repeated), and 50 m respectively. Results obtained from the study area revealed that geoelectric layers range from 3 to 4. Further findings from the study revealed that the iso-resistivity plot of AB/2 at various depths, it was observed that the area is predominantly underlain with coarse, medium, and fine sand as AB/2 increases.

Pages 15-23
Year 2022
Issue 1
Volume 6
Posted by Natasha

pjg.02.2022.29.34

ABSTRACT

INVESTIGATION OF UNDERGROUND PIPELINE CORROSIVITY AS A FUNCTION OF LITHOLOGY AND PORE FLUID IN PARTS OF RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA USING ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY METHOD

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Geology (PJG)
Author: Ezeonuogu A Happiness, Tamunobereton-ari Iyenomie, Amechi Bright

This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/pjg.02.2022.29.34

Corrosivity of underground pipeline as a function of lithology and pore fluid in parts of Rivers State, Nigeria was investigated using Wenner array configuration or technique of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES). A total of six VES were conducted at three locations within Rivers State, the study area and they are Obrikom, Dutch Island and Akpajo each having two VES points. The VES data were collected using ABEM terrameter SAS 300B processed and interpreted using ROCK-WOKS 2017 software and Microsoft excel spread sheet. The apparent resistivity values range from 10Ωm to 200Ωm depicting high corrosivity and indicating that some parts in the study area are likely to be corrosive, increasing the chances of pipeline corrosion (failure) which may result to oil spillage around such areas in the nearest future. Some other parts have negligible apparent resistivity ranging from 200Ωm and above. The Wenner array method used has been proven to be safer, efficient, quick and economical for detecting corrosivity along buried pipelines. The designated corrosivity status of each area were determined by lithology of the area and their resistivity. The knowledge of this study can be applied in the improvement of transmission pipe1ine integrity and reliabi1ity practice, by detecting pipeline damage at ear1y stage as well as oil spillage control and pollutions in areas where underground pipelines are laid.

Pages 29-34
Year 2022
Issue 2
Volume 6
Posted by Natasha

pjg.01.2022.09.14

ABSTRACT

PREDICTION OF OVERPRESSURE FROM POROSITY ESTIMATION IN SEDIMENTARY ROCK FORMATION IN WESTERN NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Geology (PJG)
Author: Chukwu C. Ben, Ngeri A. Paddy, Udota S. Benjamin

This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/pjg.01.2022.09.14

Overpressure prediction is vital for safety during exploration and drilling activities. Porosity indicates the potentiality or fluid storage capacity of rocks. It is the first among essential attributes of a reservoir. This study is aimed at predicting overpressure from porosity estimation in sedimentary formation and was carried out using well log data comprising of gamma ray, density and sonic logs from two exploratory wells in Niger Delta. Gamma ray log was used to delineate the lithology of the sedimentary sequence into sandstone and shale beds at the pre-determined depth intervals, porosity was estimated from interval transit time obtained using sonic log while overpressure was estimated using empirical relation. The results of this study show that porosity decreases with for both sandstone and shale beds, but however, porosity inversion was observed between the depth range of 2100ft and 3171ft. Overpressure zone was detected at the depth range of 2195ft and 3200ft at porosity value from 28% to 32% and 22% to 31% for sandstone and shale bed respectively. The knowledge of this study can be applied in the prevention of drilling activity hazards (blow out and lost circulation) and sedimentary basin analysis.

Pages 09-14
Year 2022
Issue 1
Volume 6
Posted by dgnoraina

pjg.01.2022.04.08

ABSTRACT

NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE UNEXPLOITED TAHARA AND MRAR RESERVOIRS POTENTIAL IN GHADAMES BASIN, LIBYA

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Geology (PJG)
Author: Saleh Emhanna, Eddawi Elhatmi

This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/pjg.01.2022.04.08

Since 1950’s Ghadames Basin is considered as a highly productive petroleum province with a long exploration history in Libya, Algeria, and Tunisia. The ongoing exploration efforts and success of this basin in these countries is a proof of its potential to provide attractive exploration targets in future. Most discoveries in the basin so far have been made in the Acacus Formation as primary target and Wan Kasa and Momenyiat formations as secondary target. As well as small discoveries have been made in the Tahara and Mrar, Ras Hamia and Tanezufft formations. The scope of this project was to study the distribution of Tahara and Mrar formations to look for new potential areas. To provide a better understanding of the structural and stratigraphic framework and regional hydrocarbon prospectivity, A regional N-S cross-section (700 km) through the Ghadames Basin was constructed by using LandMark StratWork software. The information shown on it is based on well logging data from 36 wells. These wells penetrated the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and the crystalline basement. The correlation of the stratigraphic units between the wells was done using a variety of wireline logs (e.g. gamma-ray, spontaneous potential, resistivity and sonic). The sandstone units in the Tahara and Mrar formation could provide a good opportunity to explore for stratigraphic traps. These intervals are recommended for study in more details in the future using all the available information.

Pages 04-08
Year 2022
Issue 1
Volume 6
Posted by dgnoraina

pjg.02.2021.91.108

ABSTRACT

ASSESSMENT OF AQUIFER VULNERABILITY USING GIS AND MULTI-CRITERIA ANALYSIS WITHIN
LEAD CITY UNIVERSITY, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Geology (PJG)
Author: Adebo Babatunde A, Jemiriwon Emmanuel Tope and Ilugbo Stephen Olubusola

This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.2478/pjg-2021-0010

This research evaluates aquifer vulnerability within Lead City University Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. Multi-Criteria Evaluation Techniques were used for obtaining this aim, with the model which is based on hydraulic conductivity, longitudinal conductance, topsoil resistivity, and thickness of layer overlying aquifer of each sounding point within the entire investigated area for future groundwater development. Electrical Resistivity method using Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) techniques was obtained across the investigated area using Schlumberger configuration. Twenty (20) VES data points were acquired using Omega Resistivity Meter with maximum current electrode separation (AB/2) of 65 m. The geoelectric results were used to determine second-order parameters and subsequently used to model different geoelectric maps. Three subsurface geoelectric layers were delineated across the investigated area which comprises topsoil, weathered layer, and fresh basement. In this research work, four different aquifer vulnerability parameters; Topsoil Resistivity (TSR), Longitudinal Conductance (LC), Thickness of Layer Overlying Aquifer (TLOA), and Hydraulic Conductivity (HC) were generated and integrated to model the aquifer vulnerability map. It was observed that a small closure at the southwestern and northeastern parts is indicative of a high aquifer vulnerability zone. Moderate aquifer vulnerability zone was observed at the northeastern, southwestern, and western parts of the study area, while low aquifer vulnerability zone was observed at the northern, southern, southeastern, southwestern, central, northeastern, and northwestern parts of the study area. Also, a very low aquifer vulnerability zone was observed in the southwestern part of the study area. The results obtained, indicates that the investigated area is an area of low aquifer vulnerability.

Pages 91-108
Year 2021
Issue 2
Volume 5
Posted by dgnoraina

pjg.01.2022.01.03

ABSTRACT

SIMULATION ANALYSIS OF RAINFALL IN SELECTED AREAS OF NASARAWA STATE NIGERIA

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Geology (PJG)
Author: Ibrahim Sufiyan, Mohammed Alkali, Muhammad Dahiru

This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/pjg.01.2022.01.03

To evaluate the distribution rainfall more accurately, a model to daily data and simulate for long duration of data will be required. Before checking these simulated payouts against the observed payouts, it is recommended to perform a series of rainfall simulation models and trend analyses. The object is to predict the intensity of rainfall and compare its crop yield at different spots in Nasarawa state. The simulation was used and variant rainfall trend analysis was applied. The result indicates that there is a significant correlation between the rainfall at Nasarawa and Keffi. However, modern uses of pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers can lead to different crop performance and yields. Rainfall output in Nasarawa is higher than that of Keffi as compared based on the simulation result.

Pages 01-03
Year 2022
Issue 1
Volume 6
Posted by dgnoraina

pjg.02.2021.72.90

ABSTRACT

APPLICATION OF VULNERABILITY DETERMINATION FOR FOUNDATION PARAMETERS: A CASE STUDY OF ISSELE- MKPITIME AREA OF DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Geology (PJG)
Author: Bawallah Musa Adesola, Ilugbo Stephen Olubusola, Adebo Babatunde A., Adedapo Johnson Olumide, Ofomola Merrious Oviri, Oladeji Johnson Femi, Raji Idowu, Chinyem Felix Iwebunor, Hadiza Mali Bukar, Bello Kingdom, Imolore Mark Ohis

This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.2478/pjg-2021-0009

An integrated geophysical study has been carried out for the evaluation of geological factors that are responsible for foundation stability and vulnerability to failure in a typical sedimentary environment. This is a direct consequence of structural failure that was becoming a matter of almost daily occurrence, especially during the rainy season. In carrying out this study, seven electromagnetic profiles, magnetic as well as Lateral Horizontal Profiling (LRP) were carried out and complimented with Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES). The profiling allowed for the structural delineation of the areas into weak, fairly weak, fairly competent, competent, and very competent zones, while the Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) delineated the subsurface layer parameters into topsoil, clay horizon, sand, and resistive sand. The vulnerability factors obtained from the statistical analysis were used to determine the stability and generate standardize threshold values. Therefore, since the load-bearing capacity of the foundation of this area is largely dependent on the second layer which is highly incompetent from this study, it then becomes imperative that the ingenuity of the construction/civil engineer must be brought into bearing for the sustainability and stability of any structure in this study area. All the methods engaged in this study exhibits an effective correlation and the area could be inferred/observed to be highly vulnerable to failure as a result of the inherent weak nature of the study location.

Pages 72-90
Year 2021
Issue 2
Volume 5
Posted by NJK

pjg.02.2021.62.71

ABSTRACT

EVALUATION OF LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE AND NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE VEGETATION INDEX RELATIONSHIP USING LANDSAT 8 SATELLITE IMAGES IN MEHAR TALUKA, DADU

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Geology (PJG)
Author: Shoukat Ali Shah, Madeeha Kiran, Aleena Nazir, Rabia Dars

This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.2478/pjg-2021-0008

Mehar taluka has been undergoing a faster built-up development like other regions of Sindh province over the past decades. This expansion increased on replacement of natural surface by numerous artificial constituents which made substantial variations in Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The study investigates the surface temperature and vegetation index over built-up and vegetative areas from 2013-2020 in Mehar taluka. Landsat 8 imageries were acquired from the USGS web portal and processed in the ArcGIS 10.3 environment. To retrieve the LST, and to investigate the correlation, LST and NDVI were computed using equations given by USGS. The results showed that there was a linear negative correlation between both parameters. The regression coefficient value of both years was computed as (2013: R2=0.337, and 2020: R2= 0.2361). A strong negative correlation between LST and NDVI was found. Comparing both LST and NDVI, the results and maps exhibited that the peaks of the LST are usually the areas with no vegetation cover like built-up area and bare area. While NDVI peak is quite noticeable in the agricultural land and water body areas. Thus, it is clear from the study that remote sensing (RS) assessment is effective for determining the surface temperature and vegetation cover and also determining the relationship among LULC, LST, NDVI, UI, and NDWI for current and future scenarios on densely urban, regional and at the global level.

Pages 62-71
Year 2021
Issue 2
Volume 5
Posted by NJK

pjg.02.2021.51.61

ABSTRACT

INTERPRETATION OF MAJOR STRUCTURES WITHIN THE BASEMENT REGION OF BENUE-KOGI CONFLUENCE FROM AEROMAGNETIC AND RADIOMETRIC DATA KOGI STATE NIGERIA

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Geology (PJG)
Author: Fidelis I. Kwaghhua, Adetona A. Abbass, Aliyu Shakirat B.

This is an open access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.2478/pjg-2021-0007

Interpretation of Aeromagnetic and Radiometric Data covering the basement region of Benue-Kogi confluence was executed to delineate major structures and other geologic frame works of mineral interest. The Aeromagnetic data was enhanced to reveal structures while radiometric data was analysed to map lithology and zones affected by hydrothermal alterations. First Vertical derivatives, Analytical Signal and Euler deconvolution filters were applied to the Aeromagnetic data while Ratio and Ternary images of the three radiogenic elements were obtained for the radiometric data. Magnetic signatures from the TMI showed medium susceptibility at the Northern Koton-Karfe region, a mixture of high and low susceptibility below koton-karfe due to intrusion of oolitic iron ore within the sedimentary formation. Lokoja regions recorded highest susceptibility of 165 nT due to magnetic signatures emanating from exposed basement rocks. The southern Idah regions recorded relatively low susceptibility. Analysis of First Vertical Derivatives revealed near surface mineral potent structures labelled F1 – F8, also cringing surface features B1, B2 and B3. Analytical signal revealed high amplitudes range of 0.174 to 0.579 cycles for magnetic sources majorly at the basement regions, while low amplitude range of 0.021 to 0.157 cycles were recorded around the sedimentary regions. Euler depth analysis revealed shallower depth to sources in the basement and deeper depth to sources in the sedimentary regions due to thick overburden. Radiometric signatures from the K/Th ratio map revealed portions around Latitude 8°00’ NW and 7°30’ SW shaded in pink colour and having values above known threshold of 0.2 %/ppm to be hydrothermally altered. Mapping of lithology from Ternary map revealed K-Feldspar mineral bearing rocks dominated the NW and SW regions, while sandstones, ironstones, mudstones, shale, alluvium and other fluvial sedimentary lithologies dominated the sedimentary North-east and South-Eastern regions. The western regions (NW and SW) hosted the major structures in form of magnetic lineaments trending NE-SW and E-W which also coincided with regions delineated to be hydrothermally altered and apparently represents the most prospective regions of mineralisation in the study area.

Pages 51-61
Year 2021
Issue 2
Volume 5
Posted by NJK