PROVENANCE STUDIES OF MIOCENE-PLIOCENE NAGRI FORMATION EXPOSED AT KANATI AREA, DISTRICT KHUSHAB, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
Journal: Pakistan Journal of Geology (PJG)
Author: Sohaib Zia, Hamad-Ur-Rahim, M.Husnain Fida, Tofeeq Ahmad, Waqar Ahmad, Sajjad Khan
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
The Siwalik sediments are widely distributed in foreland areas of Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bhutan. In Pakistan they are composed of four formations (Chinji Formation, Nagri Formation, Dhok Pathan Formation, Soan Formation) These post tectonic deposits contain vast phylogenetic trends of modern vertebrate species especially dating back to Miocene-Pliocene. Our study encompasses the Miocene-Pliocene Nagri Formation exposed at Kanati Section, District Khushab. The purpose of the study is to establish depositional modal based of Lithofacies and Petrographical studies. The Nagri Formation in the Kanati Section is 47 m thick and predominantly contains sandstone, silt and clay with sub-ordinate conglomerates. Four Lithofacies were established. These are Conglomerate Facies (N1) interpreted as channel floor deposits, Sandstone Facies with cross beds and extraclasts (N2), where extraclasts were deposited by the lateral movement of channel, Siltstone and Claystone/Mudstone Facies (N3) which were interpreted as crevasse splay deposits, and Clay Facies (N4) interpreted as flood channel deposits. The clay exposed here was mostly brick red in color showing oxidizing conditions due to subaerial exposure. Spheroidal weathering was quite common in sandstone. Petrographic analysis for sandstone thin sections revealed mostly moderate amount of quartz (59.53%), lithic fragments (39.9%) with minimal amount of feldspar (0.55%). The petrographic results for Nagri sandstone were plotted on a QFL diagram from where it was interpreted as belonging to Lithic Arenites. The provenance of this sandstone was established to be of Recycled Orogen based on the studies.